Weapon Outlawed By A 1993 Agreement

Geneva Gas Protocol, in the comprehensive protocol prohibiting the use of asphyxiating, toxic or other gases in war and bacteriological methods of warfare in international law, a treaty signed in 1925 by most countries of the world and which prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons in war. It was developed at the 1925 Geneva Conference as part of a series of measures aimed at preventing a repeat of the atrocities committed by the belligerents during the First World War. The widespread use of asphyxiating gas during the First World War breathed a new era of man-made mass destruction and alarmed the international community. The peace agreements signed by the victorious allies with Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary marked a strong recognition of the immense danger posed by chemical and biological weapons. The 1925 Geneva Conference, organized by the League of Nations, the predecessor of the United Nations, went further. At the initiative of the United States, France and Poland, the countries participating in the conference drafted the so-called protocol prohibiting the use in war of asphyxiants, toxic or other gases and bacteriological methods of war. Not only does the CAC prohibit the use of chemical weapons, but, contrary to the Geneva Protocol, it also prohibits their development, production, storage and transfer and requires that all existing chemical weapons stockpiles be destroyed within ten years. Like the BTWC, the CAC is supported by a “general criterion” defining the substances to which its prohibitions apply. In accordance with Article VI of the CAC, States Parties must take steps to ensure that toxic chemicals and their precursors are used only for purposes that are not prohibited by the Convention. The general objective test allows the Convention to follow technological developments and, in the case of dual-use chemicals, to exempt peaceful use from its prohibitions. The convention lists 43 chemical substances and families and families for the application of special procedures, but, because of the general criterion of purpose, the treaty bans are not limited to them.

By November 2018, 96.62 per cent of the world`s reported chemical weapons stockpiles had been destroyed. [8] The Convention contains provisions relating to the systematic assessment of chemical production facilities as well as investigations into allegations of the use and manufacture of chemical weapons on the basis of the findings of other states. Cac negotiations began in 1980 at the United Nations Conference on Disarmament. The agreement was opened for signature on January 13, 1993 and came into force on April 29, 1997. In 2009, before Iraq entered the CWC, the OPCW reported that since 2004, the U.S. military had destroyed nearly 5,000 old chemical weapons in open-air explosions. [42] These weapons, manufactured prior to the 1991 Gulf War, contained sarin and foaming products, but they were so corroded that they could not have been used as originally intended. [43] In 1991, the UN Security Council ordered the dismantling of Iraq`s chemical arsenal. Until 1998, UNSCOM inspectors were responsible for the destruction of 88,000 filled and unfilled chemical munitions, more than 690 tons of armed and mass chemical agents, approximately 4,000 tonnes of precursor chemicals and 980 large production units. [41] UNSCOM inspectors left the country in 1998. The CAC complements the 1925 Geneva Protocol on Chemical Weapons and includes comprehensive inspection measures, such as on-site inspections.

The Geneva Protocol does not apply to biological weapons, but in 1968, the Committee of the Eighteen Nations for Disarmament (ENDC) concluded the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). When Iraq joined the CWC in 2009, ROGelio Pfirter, Director General of the OPCW, said that “two bunkers filled and not filled with chemical weapons, some precursors and five former chemical weapons factories.” [30] The bunker entrances were sealed in 1994 under the supervision of UNSCOM with 1.5 metres of reinforced concrete

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